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CPE for Government Auditors

Why would a government employee commit fraud?

Please enjoy the first chapter of “The Little Book of Government Fraud” by Charles Hall, CPA.  An fun-to-read and informative self-study course available at Yellowbook-CPE.com.

Objectives:

  • Identify common characteristics of fraudsters
  • Identify various types of fraud schemes

Before we dig into fraud at the ground level of individual transactions, let’s take a look at local government fraud from 30,000 feet. We need to understand the big picture before drilling deeper—at the transaction level—where fraud really happens. To initially develop our understanding of governmental fraud, let’s examine:

  • Who steals
  • The language of fraud
  • Where fraud occurs
  • How and why fraud occurs

Thou Shalt Not Steal
I learned it in Sunday school: Thou shalt not steal. I knew better, but the temptation of taking one of my father’s five-dollar bills was too great. Besides, he’d never know—he had so many five-dollar bills. My little mind rationalized, “He won’t even miss it.” And surely, I, a five-year old, needed the money more than my father. So, I took and hid, as so many throughout history have done (Al Capone, Bonnie and Clyde, and now, freckled-faced South Georgia boy Charles Hall).

My secret hiding place was a red stamp box in the hallway of our home. My father must have found it. On the way to our Florida vacation, he asked, “Who took five dollars from my billfold?” First silence filled the air…then my sister chimed in, “Not me,” and in rapid staccato fashion, my two brothers yelled “Not me either.” Hoping to hide my guilt, I quickly retorted “Not me” and glanced around the car as if to say, “Who could have done this?”

It was then I had the most vexing vacation of my life. I couldn’t tell my father. Like Ralphie from A Christmas Story, I imagined my Dad would kill me. It was only upon arriving back home that I confessed, and my father swept me up in his arms saying, “Son, I knew it was you all along.” (Thankfully, he did not kill me.) As a kid, I learned my lesson. Some adults never do. So, what does a typical fraudster look like?

The Poster Child
Through the years, I’ve seen people from diverse social, ethnic, and age groups steal. Even so, fraud studies point to one consistent picture of the typical fraudster. And what is that picture? He looks like me. He’s male, educated, in a position of authority, and has been on the payroll for a while.
The Association of Certified Fraud Examiners (ACFE), in its 2018 Report to the Nations (a fraud survey), indicates the following about those who steal:

  • 69% of frauds are committed by males.
  • The median fraud loss from males is $156,000; the median loss from females is $89,000.
  • Approximately 53% of all fraudsters are between the ages of 31 and 45; fraud losses tend to rise with the age of the perpetrator.
  • Approximately 44% of fraudsters have between one and five years of tenure at their organizations; fewer than 10% of perpetrators commit fraud within the first year on the job.
  • 61% of fraudsters have a college degree or higher.
  • Fraud schemes committed by owners/executives cause the largest median losses ($850,000).

My observation is that there is greater diversity in governments, so the above statistics may not be as relevant. Rather than trying to identify fraudsters by typical characteristics (e.g., gender or education), I like to consider:

  • Who are the trusted employees with authority?
  • What can they do?
  • Who fully understands the accounting system?

A fraudster is frequently the person you would not expect to steal: the trusted employee, the individual who has been around the longest, the one who understands and controls accounting (remember Rita Crundwell). The trusted, long- time staff member is usually accorded greater control— because he or she is seen as trustworthy. This person has the keys to the kingdom.

Additionally, I’ve noticed that elected officials fit this “trusted” category, and some take advantage of the power they possess to circumvent internal controls. For example, who is going to question the sheriff? When one person—regardless of who he or she is—has full control of the accounting process, be careful!

So why is the trusted employee the one who commonly steals?

Because he can.

You may be thinking: Duh? But this is a critical point. As we will soon see, this dynamic—referred to as opportunity—is a key component of fraud.

While in France
Once while I was traveling in France, I was looking for a train station. I stopped a kind elderly gentleman on the street and asked, in English, for directions. I soon realized we were not understanding one another. In my frustration, I began to say, “toot, toot!” He smiled (thinking “crazy American”) and pointed; soon I reached my destination. In this instance, I was able to overcome the language barrier. But to make our fraud journey easier, we need a common language. So please allow me to define the following terms:

  • Fraud
  • Abuse
  • Asset misappropriation
  • Corruption
  • Financial statement fraud
  • Fraud prevention
  • Fraud detection

Fraud – What Is It?

I recently read of a southern city that had undocumented expenses of $200 million over a twelve-year period. Is this fraud? Not necessarily. In this instance, you need to demonstrate that funds were stolen before you can prove fraud. Though a red flag, the lack of invoice support does not prove that theft occurred.

In another example, Bobby Johnson, the CFO of a hospital authority, recently changed the method of calculating the allowance for uncollectible accounts. The change resulted in a positive change in net income of $1.2 million dollars. Is this fraudulent reporting? It all depends. Governments can and sometimes should change how they compute estimates. Did Bobby change the computation to juice up net income? Or does the change more accurately reflect the hospital authority’s environment? It’s not always easy to know. But remember this: to prove fraud, you must prove intent. If Bobby did not intend to misrepresent the numbers, fraud does not exist. An error in judgment? Possibly, but no fraud.

The Association of Certified Fraud Examiners defines occupational fraud as: “The use of one’s occupation for personal enrichment through the deliberate misuse or misapplication of the employing organization’s resources or assets.”

I define fraud as:

  • Money is stolen, or
  • Financial statements are intentionally misstated (also known as “cooking the books”)

Three Fraud Categories

The ACFE categorizes fraud as follows:

  1. Asset misappropriation schemes: An employee steals or misuses the organization’s resources (e.g., theft of company cash, false billing schemes, or inflated expense reports)
  2. Corruption schemes: An employee misuses his or her influence in a business transaction in a way that violates his or her duty to the employer in order to gain a direct or indirect benefit (e.g., schemes involving bribery or conflicts of interest)
  3. Financial statement fraud schemes: An employee intentionally causes a misstatement or omission of material information in the organization’s financial reports (e.g., intentionally recording fictitious revenues or understating expenses)

Abuse – What Is It?

Another closely related term is abuse. Think of abuse as a lesser form of fraud, though the distinction between the two can sometimes blur.
Examples of abuse include:

  • Employees calling in sick when they are well
  • Employees driving public vehicles for personal purposes
  • Employees making excessive personal phone calls during work hours
  • Employees taking government-owned equipment home for personal use
  • Employees using the government’s copy machines for personal projects or businesses

This book mainly deals with fraud rather than abuse; nevertheless, consider that both occur, and that you may need to craft abuse-related preventive policies in addition to your fraud prevention measures.

Fraud Prevention and Detection

Fraud-related internal controls are commonly broken down into two categories:

  • Fraud prevention
  • Fraud detection

Prevention is usually the more costly of the two, but it is more effective. As the name states, these procedures are designed to stop fraud before it occurs. An example of a prevention procedure is the review of direct deposit bank account numbers for potential duplicates prior to payroll processing.

By contrast, detection measures are performed after trans- actions are processed (and after fraud may have taken place). As you might expect, these controls tend to be less expensive and less cumbersome to administer. An example of a detection procedure is the review of W-2s at year-end for excessive payments.

We’ve now defined our fraud terms, so let’s examine the nature of fraud. What types of theft are most common? How long do most schemes last? What are the ingredients of fraud?

Which Fraud Is More Common?

Theft is the most common type of fraud in governments. Money can be stolen directly (e.g., skimming) or indirectly (e.g., bribery). Funds can be stolen by those with direct access to cash (e.g., a receipting clerk) and by those without direct access to cash (e.g., elected officials).

Financial statement fraud is not common in most local governments. Are there misstatements? Yes. Are the mis- statements intentional? Usually no. The misstatements are normally mistakes rather than manipulation. Public sector entities simply have fewer incentives to manipulate the financial statements than their private-sector counterparts. For instance, a publicly-held company may manipulate profits in order to increase stock prices, but public entities don’t have this temptation.

Incentives for manipulating governmental financial statements do increase as public entities grow in size. Complex investment and debt agreements can tempt governments to manipulate numbers, especially when financial conditions have deteriorated. Complexity (e.g., interest rate swaps) may provide enough opacity to hide the nonrecognition of adverse financial events. And governments with debt may have certain financial statement requirements known as debt covenants that increase the temptation to cheat on the numbers. Though auditors should consider the possibility of financial statement fraud, this book focuses primarily on the more prevalent forms of governmental fraud: asset misappropriation and corruption.

Average Local Government Fraud Damages

The ACFE’s biennial fraud survey usually reports median governmental per-case damages in the range of $100,000 to $120,000, but fraud committed by upper-level management can easily exceed $1 million depending on the size of the government. As we saw in the Rita Crundwell story, Dixon, Illinois, a city of just 16,000, was defrauded of over $53 million.

Given that the 2012 Census of Governments identifies approximately 89,000 U.S. local governments, there are a great number of counties, cities, towns, school districts, and special districts where fraud can occur.

Average Life of a Fraud
In the beginning of my career, I naively believed that fraud was instantaneously detected as it occurred—surely within a month’s time. But the ACFE’s fraud survey consistently shows that frauds have a life of about eighteen months before detection. Bear in mind this statistic reflects fraud cases where theft has been detected; unknown frauds are not included in the computation. Some local government frauds exist for decades without detection.

Fraud – Where It Happens

The 2018 ACFE’s Report to the Nations found that governments are the second most commonly victimized industry (trailing only banking and financial services). And within governments, the 2018 survey reflects the following concentrations of fraud schemes[1]:

Scheme Percent of Cases
Corruption 50%
Billing 15%
Noncash 22%
Skimming 11%
Payroll 7%
Check Tampering 9%
Cash on Hand 11%
Cash Larceny 11%
Financial Statement Fraud 5%
RegisterDisbursement 2%

In the following pages, we will focus on the areas that open the door to the greatest potential damage in your government. Expense reimbursement fraud, for example, is common but usually involves less dollar damage than corruption. So, we will spend more time examining corruption and other areas where the threat of loss is greatest.

Stealing from Little Old Ladies
Many who steal from local governments view their theft as taking from the government itself. But from whom is the fraudster ultimately stealing? The local citizens—from Mr. Johnson, the owner of the local feed and seed; Mrs. Durham, the pastor’s wife; Lloyd Tailor, a cotton farmer; and Rez Jacobs, the postmaster. These people pay property taxes, water fees, and all the other sources of money that flow into the local government. The fraudster is stealing from his next-door neighbor, from those he goes to church with, from members of the local Lions Club, and from volunteer firefighters.

Those who steal from local governments tell themselves things like, “The city doesn’t need this money, and besides, it’s the government.” Stealing, at least psychologically, is easier if the thief sees himself as taking from a cold sterile entity rather than from his neighbors. Taking from the government is easier than pilfering from the little old ladies down at the local senior citizens’ center, though this is exactly what is occurring. You may, at this point, be thinking, “Only callous people would do such a thing.” Well, let’s see.

Stealing While Dying
In one of the strangest frauds I’ve seen, the bookkeeper was stealing money while dying. Going to meet your Maker with the fresh scent of theft on your hands is not a good way to go.

I had provided external audit services to this health department for years and knew the bookkeeper (we’ll call her Katie) quite well. She sent me thank you cards—yes, thank you cards—for my audit work. Katie was polite, well spoken, and great at her job. If ever I thought there was someone who would not (and could not) steal, it was—you guessed it—Katie. But external circumstances can make even the best people do the improbable. During the course of one audit year, Katie developed cancer. The medical treatments resulted in numerous medical bills, many of which she received while still working off and on. Sadly, she eventually died.

Knowing that Katie had passed away, I knew the audit would be challenging, especially since the health department board had not hired anyone to replace her. Upon my arrival I requested the bank statements, but the remaining employees could not locate them (not a good sign). I thought maybe she had taken the bank statements home and had not returned them due to her illness. Her family members said no. After the employees had searched for some time with no result, the health department requisitioned the bank statements and cleared checks from the bank.

In reviewing the cleared checks, I quickly noticed round-dollar vendor checks written to Katie. The first one was for $7,000. My first thought was, “Not Katie. I’ve known her too long. No way. Surely an explanation exists.” But there was another, and another…

Reporting the theft to the health department board was difficult. Here was an honest person who had stolen money because she felt she had to.

This is one case where I wanted to just let it go, to walk away and pretend it didn’t happen. But I knew that was not an option. Can you imagine being the board member that called Katie’s husband—just months after her death—and informed him of the theft? Fraud is an ugly thing.

If you’re an auditor and you need a reason to communicate internal control weaknesses in an open manner, here’s one—for the employee’s own safety (not to mention your own). Sometimes money is too tempting, even for the best of people.

The Fraud Triangle
Fraud experts commonly explain fraud using the three elements of the fraud triangle:

  1. Rationalization (Katie’s unselfish desire to leave her family with no medical bills)
  2. Incentive (need for cash to pay medical bills)
  3. Opportunity (almost no segregation of duties)

Katie was authorized to sign checks. Though the checks required two signatures, the bank cleared the checks with just Katie’s signature. Since Katie keyed all transactions into the computer and reconciled the bank statements, she had the keys to the castle. We call this opportunity.

The people you’re auditing are too honest to steal? Maybe. Or possibly you’ve worked side by side with governmental employees and you believe them to be saints. Maybe. We don’t know about their personal lives—or what will happen in the future. Fraud percolates in these unshareable problem areas such as financial stress, gambling debts, affairs, or simply a desire to keep up with the Joneses. When it comes to designing accounting systems, we need to largely disregard the character of people working in the government and design the system as if fraud may happen.

Lesson Learned

  • When records go missing—pay attention
  • When you see round-dollar vendor checks—dig deeper
  • When your government lacks segregation of duties— raise your antenna

While all three elements of the fraud triangle are important, in the following pages we will focus primarily upon opportunity. Of the three, opportunity is the part we can, at least to some degree, control. Governments are seldom able to manage a fraudster’s incentive or rationalization. Incentive usually develops independent of the fraudster’s employment; think of the medical bills, for example. The fraudster, prompted by the incentive, first calms his conscience by rationalizing. Next, he exploits the opportunity (control weakness). If we can close the door to opportunity, fraud will be greatly diminished and possibly eliminated.


[1]Note: Some fraud cases include more than one scheme.

Chapter 1: Lean Six Sigma for Accountants – Introduction

Please enjoy this excerpt from Lean Six Sigma for Accountants available as a self-study text here.

Objectives: 

  • Define Lean Six Sigma
  • Determine how Lean Six Sigma fits into the accounting culture

Introducing and Demystifying Lean Six Sigma

Even for those familiar with it, Lean Six Sigma can mean different things to different people depending on the situation.  Sometimes, it indicates a manufacturing technique designed to reduce waste and improve yield.  Sometimes it refers to a quality department tool set.  Sometimes, it seems like just part of the latest  “fix-it” hype, consulting mumbo-jumbo or management flavor of the month type stuff.

If you are reading this publication, we assume that you are looking for some sort of meaning in, with, or through Lean Six Sigma. This text is intended to provide that insight, as well as a foundation for using Lean Six Sigma immediately within the accounting function of an organization–specifically, a government accounting organization.  If you are a government auditor, you will find this book is full of fancy, impressive names (sometimes exotic-sounding Japanese names!) for things you already do, but it may also add a few techniques to your bag of tricks.

What Is It?

At the most basic level, Lean Six Sigma is a way of working and of viewing the world that allows all of us to DO THINGS BETTER.  Lean Six Sigma provides a framework, a methodology and a wide array of tools and concepts to help people in large and small organizations alike find the value of, and increase the value of the activities in which they are engaged… and who is not interested in that?

In manufacturing, Lean Six Sigma CAN lead to reduced waste and improved yield. That means a better production process, with less scrap, less need for rework, and therefore a better cost picture. For the quality department it CAN represent a set of tools.  These help determine what factors influence quality and how to control for them.  To others, especially business managers, it CAN appear to be a “flavor-of-the-week” consulting offering–BUT IT WORKS–to drive process improvement and to make things better (that part of process improvement is increased control–something that often appeals to those skeptical program managers!).

Lean Six Sigma can apply to an assembly line function in a manufacturing environment, to a transactional environment (another way of describing a non-manufacturing environment) where the end product is service, or to a virtual environment where collaboration and knowledge transfer is the goal.  As an accountant, you may have contact with all of these functional areas or environments in the course of doing your job!

Much of Lean Six Sigma is just organized common sense–like minimizing activities that waste time and don’t lead to a desired outcome and like trying to do things right as often as possible to have a better overall result. In the course of everyday work, however, we sometimes lose sight of these basics.  Deadlines, politics, conflicting priorities, and multiple demands on our time and energy can cause us to merely react and sometimes to deflect, instead of really thinking about what we are doing and how we are doing it…or better yet, to reflect on how we could be doing it better.

As it pertains to making things better, the list of areas where Lean Six Sigma can be applied is endless.  Below is a sample of typical accounting-focused jobs or functional areas that can benefit from Lean Six Sigma practice.  You may have more to add to this list!

Auditing
Budgeting and forecasting
Cash management
Credit Analysis
Contracts management
Compliance assurance
Cost accounting
General ledger accounting
Financial planning
Fraud investigations
Grants management
Information technology implementation
Inventory control
Financial analysis
Financial reporting
Performance management
Program management
Purchasing
Risk management
Strategic planning
Tax accounting
Treasury management

Pardon the ad nauseam repetition–we really want you to remember this point. As said before, each of these functions or roles can benefit from Lean Six Sigma because Lean Six Sigma can help us do things better.  Breaking it down a little more, Lean Six Sigma in accounting and elsewhere equates to:

  • Doing it faster (reducing cycle time)
  • Doing it more accurately (minimizing errors and re-dos)
  • Doing it to the customers’ satisfaction (meeting customer specs)
  • Doing it more cheaply (do more with less)

Lean Six Sigma can help with all of those desires and can lead to any of those benefits.  No, it isn’t a cure all, or silver bullet.  You will have to work and use your brain… but hey, that’s why they pay you the big bucks, right?

The Accounting Focus

The focus of this book is on Lean Six Sigma within the accounting function, regardless of the type of overall enterprise.  You may work in accounting within a manufacturing company like John Deere; within a distribution or retail company like Wal-Mart; within a service business like Mabel’s Plumbing or Al’s Restaurant; or within a small government organization such as a city or school district.  You might work within a not-for-profit organization; within an environment with lots of daily transactions like USAA (insurance) or with just a few–think McMansion sales.  Whatever your organizational focus and structure, be it government, corporate, private, or non-profit, the accounting function is ripe for introduction of Lean Six Sigma and the benefits it can bring.

When I was in college, an accounting professor at University of Texas (UT) gave a very simple lecture that made a big difference to me.  The professor, Dr. Courtland Huber, said that accounting majors had a choice when entering the working world.  They could be compliance and transaction-oriented police officers and paper pushers, or they could become part of the management team.  He had studied the career paths of accountants over time and noticed a 40% pay differential for those who made the choice to lead and to see a broader picture.  “Improvement pushers” triumph over paper pushers–and who doesn’t want more salary!?! Lean Six Sigma is an approach for doing this.  Let’s see why…

TOP TEN Factors That Make Accountants Ideal Users of Lean Six Sigma:

1.      Accountants and auditors see more.
Accountants often have a bird’s eye view of operations.  Other departments may have a more myopic viewpoint–only dealing with their part of the organization and with those that help them achieve their own immediate goals.  In comparison, accountants often collect data on a variety of functions and are in a great position to see where change is most needed across a chain or network of operations.  Auditors perform risk assessments of the entire organization and often understand its workings better than program managers.
Accountants may be well positioned to initiate, drive, and implement the needed changes because they can or should be able to see things across business units and across functions.

2.      Accountants and auditors have the data.
A key part of Lean Six Sigma is having the ability to measure.  “If you can’t measure it, you can’t improve it,” so the saying goes.  Having the data gives the ability to measure and improve something.
Having the data, or the access to the data, also allows accountants and auditors to measure the improvements in various meaningful ways.  While financially, this is ultimately in dollars, operational measures may answer questions like “how fast,” “how long,” and “how many.”
Before an engineer implementing Lean Six Sigma in a manufacturing operation can declare success, he has to put a dollar figure with his efforts.  Where does he get the dollar figure?  Accountants may already have the information at their fingertips to calculate a valid return on investment of any Lean Six Sigma improvement process.  They can also talk return on investment and money better than anybody else– including the engineers!

3.      Accountants are often players in strategic planning … or should be.
Accountants’ ability to see the big picture allows them to link the results of Lean Six Sigma to results that have meaning for the organization.
Participants who operate at the strategic level have a better ability to tie operational and tactical improvement projects to corporate goals and to bring in that oh-so-important element of aligning projects to strategy. And although auditors shouldn’t be part of the strategic planning process, they are intimate with it, as they often evaluate the results of the entity against its plans.
Planning improvement projects (using Lean Six Sigma) should be part of the strategic planning process, in which accountants SHOULD participate.

4.      Accountants and auditors naturally value accuracy, timelines, and CONTROL!
While other departments may need convincing that good controls to create accurate, meaningful results are important, accountants and auditors are already sold!  Part of a successful Lean Six Sigma project is having the ability to sustain and control improvements.
Lean Six Sigma helps to clarify and improve business processes.  This leads to more transparency and easier governance–increasingly important these days!  A well-documented process makes an auditor’s life dreamy!
Lean Six Sigma can help you understand when things get “out of whack” and provides tools for correcting systems, processes and procedures to increase compliance and decrease the chance of fraud.
Programs that have undergone a process improvement project using Lean Six Sigma have thought about controls before the auditor gets there.

5.      Accountants and auditors are good at structure.
Accountants and auditors know how to define clear objectives and tasks and to create policies and procedures to achieve those objectives.  The terminology of Lean Six Sigma may be new to many accountants and auditors, but the underlying concepts will be familiar and comfortable for them.
Lean Six Sigma provides a framework for decision-making that is rational, orderly, and hard to argue with.  People who like structure like Lean Six Sigma.

6.      Accountants and auditors like the fact that Lean Six Sigma is bottom-line driven.
Lean Six Sigma projects are often evaluated against whether they contribute to bottom line financial results–and who knows the bottom line better than accountants?
After you use Lean Six Sigma to improve the bottom line, you can also use it to improve the top line–generating additional revenue through focusing on the Voice of the Customer (VOC) and designing processes that ultimately provide what the customer values.  Accountants who cannot only control costs, but can also increase revenue are GODS! (They are paid more too, just like the professor said.)  Sometimes they later get to be called “Controller.”
Auditors sell their own department’s worth (and hence increase staffing and prestige) through quantifying audit recommendations and results.

7.      Accountants end up getting involved anyway.
Probably somewhere along the way, another team within the organization will try to implement Lean Six Sigma and when they do, they will have to involve accounting to get the data they need.  How cool would it be to be able to beat these operations managers to the punch with your own Lean Six Sigma analysis of critical organizational processes?  This again gets back to my professor’s comments about taking the lead instead of just taking a supporting role.
Being involved in Lean Six Sigma helps with continuous learning about other areas of the organization.  This is a good thing and can help generate good opportunities for advancement as well as for beefing up the resume.
Government auditors are often expected to have the latest techniques and tools at their disposal–at least they don’t want to be caught by surprise when an innovative program manager implements Lean Six Sigma

8.      Accountants and auditors will appreciate the holistic approach.
Because accountants and auditors are so aware of all the players in the organization and how each impacts the others, accountants will appreciate how Lean Six Sigma does its best to avoid turfs or silos when diagnosing and resolving problems. Accountants appreciate that Lean Six Sigma will integrate people, process, and technology.
Lean Six Sigma is a good approach for bringing cross-functional teams together to support a holistic approach.  Often some of the greatest good comes from just getting people out of their silos for a while.

9.      Accountants and auditors are increasingly held to non‑financial performance metrics.
Are you under pressure to create more timely data or more accurate data or to shorten cycle time?  Is the department concerned with reducing costs and maintaining a knowledgeable workforce?  No matter what the organization expects of you and your department, Lean Six Sigma can help you do what you are doing more efficiently and more effectively.
By clarifying processes and discerning what is ultimately important to the customer, Lean Six Sigma pushes people to choose metrics that are relevant to the government and its citizens–not just the metrics that are easy to produce (but don’t help anybody to improve anything).

10.    Accountants and auditors sometimes need an image makeover.
By bringing Lean Six Sigma techniques into your organization, you can demonstrate your ability to think in an innovative, bigger way.  Would you prefer to stick with what you know making a smaller salary, or are you willing to involve yourself in issues of a broader significance to the organization?
Have you ever taken the Myers-Briggs test for personality type?  I have been through a lot of those trainings, and invariably there is an example that says people in accounting and auditing are “introverts” (or maybe I am just sensitive to that). In our society, being an introvert has a negative connotation.  I find that what we usually call “introvert” is more like “relatively risk averse”. Lean Six Sigma doesn’t change personality types, but it can help people who are more careful in their decision making to meaningful changes with diminished risk.  This is possible because there is a methodology and a system that makes sense.
Lean Six Sigma gives people a platform to do things and to stand out.  Sometimes you need a vehicle to use in order to bring attention to yourself.  Accountants and auditors ROCK!

Lean Six Sigma at Work

As an accountant and auditor, it seems clear that Lean Six Sigma should appeal to you at some level.  Remember, the core of Lean Six Sigma is about doing things better.  In Lean Six Sigma-speak, we call this “identifying and increasing value.”  (As an aside, a friend who was reviewing this text told me that instead of “value” I should put “money” because Lean Six Sigma is used to improve the bottom line. He was right on one point–Lean Six Sigma is undertaken in business to improve the bottom line; however, the value we refer to above is more like “benefit”–a more broadly defined “value” that includes more than just monetary wealth. In government, value is often defined as service to our constituents.  We will see how value within Lean Six Sigma is determined a bit later on.)

Throughout the rest of this chapter are some examples of how Lean Six Sigma methodology works in real organizations and business situations. This should give you a flavor for how it might work in your organization!

A University’s Experience

During the 1990’s, many rural and small town universities in Texas were absorbed by either Texas A&M or the University of Texas.  The Texas legislature wanted more consistent control over these smaller universities and the smaller universities wanted to share in the wealth of the two largest universities in the state.  So, Pan Am University became University of Texas at Brownsville, for example.  As you can imagine, the usurped universities experienced a bit of a culture shock.

One small rural university called me after they had been audited by the University of Texas internal audit shop. The University of Texas auditors criticized the rural university’s accounting and purchasing department for having weak internal controls.  The lead compliance officer at the rural university asked me to help her explain to her accounting managers and staff what ”internal control” meant.  They were wounded from being so strongly criticized, but they had no idea what to do in response.

After explaining that internal controls are simply steps you take to make sure you achieve your goals, we talked about what their department was trying to achieve.

As part of that seminar, we created several flowcharts–one for each arm of the accounting and purchasing department–showing what happened when one of the departments made a routine purchase. We used athletics as our example. Each accounting and purchasing department worked for a few minutes to post a flowchart on the wall using post-it-notes.

After everyone had a chance to look over the Post-It-Note flowcharts, I reviewed what was on the wall, asking the managers and staff to identify any redundancies.  Comments such as “I didn’t know you did that–I do that, too!” and, “Why are we doing that?” flew!  Just the visual presentation of the process made a difference.

The most meaningful conversation started when one of the ladies commented on one of the flowcharted activities, “That little process works every day but Friday!”  She was referring to the trip approval and cash advance process.  Each person in the room knew that you threw the whole process away on Friday because various groups–like the football team and the band–waited until the students were loaded on the bus to process the paperwork necessary to start the trip.

Even though accounting had repeatedly asked the athletic and band directors to plan ahead, they consistently failed to do so.  One of the accounting clerks–who wore very high-heeled shoes, by the way, because she was under five feet tall–walked the transaction all over campus.  Everyone teased her about her tennis shoes–and resulting reduced stature–on Fridays.  In addition to creating more manual effort, all controls were scrapped and the accounting department wasted major portions of their day doing the wrong thing.

“Ahs…” flowed abundantly around the room.  Controls and the need for controls had hit home.  Through creating and analyzing processes using a flow chart, the group had a technique for diagnosing their issues and for resolving them. Previously they had just done what needed to be done in the moment–“BAU” or the Business As Usual syndrome–and had gotten in the habit of doing the wrong thing.  By using a Lean Six Sigma tool (the flow chart), they were able to make improvements and gain greater internal control.

Why Is It Called “Lean Six Sigma”?

Lean Six Sigma is a combination of two separate disciplines or bodies of knowledge originally associated with quality improvement and manufacturing. Those two disciplines are Lean and Six Sigma (who would have guessed?).  Today, both separately and combined, Lean and Six Sigma are viewed more broadly as systems of business process management and improvement, in addition to still being used and regarded as quality systems.

We address Lean Six Sigma here as a holistic topic–the synthesis of the two previously named systems.  Lean Six Sigma is a breakthrough business methodology used to drive change within an organization.  That’s our definition!  We believe the two approaches to be better together than apart because of the complementary parts of each, especially in business process improvement.  As such, Lean Six Sigma has evolved as a newer, better mousetrap–good news for those in the consulting business as well as for those seeking a new approach to driving business improvement and excellence!

To backtrack a little, though–if you are really into knowing why Lean is “Lean” and “Six Sigma” sounds like something out of an engineering textbook or a sci-fi movie, here’s the reason. “Lean”  signifies a streamlined process–where there’s not a lot of excess… like “lean and mean.” “Lean” is already a word that is within most native English speakers’ vocabularies, so it is fairly easy to get an intuitive sense of the concept.  “Six Sigma,”  on the other hand, is a term with its origin in statistics–not highly intuitive for a lot of us.

Sigma is the Greek letter representing standard deviation of a process around its mean or average. The standard deviation shows how much variation there is in the process. (In the world of business process improvement, the goal is to reduce variation.  Variation = defects = waste = bad!)  In a process with a normal distribution (sorry–another statistics term), 99.73% of the measurements are within +/- three sigma.  To you and me, this means that the result of what you are doing or measuring is only defective (not what you intended or “bad”) about 3 times out of 1000.  For some accounting processes, this is already very good!

“Six Sigma”  refers to a process that is essentially defect-free. From a strictly technical standpoint, it means that you will have a mistake or a defect only 3.4 times out of one million… just about as close to perfection as you can get.  However, for our purposes, “Six Sigma” is used more generically to refer to a methodology for reducing errors and improving the chance of getting the intended results.

Lean Six Sigma as a whole is the drive for improvement and ultimately, for perfection.  Lean was started by Toyota in the 1950’s and Six Sigma was started by Motorola in the late 1980’s, both building upon ideas about “how to do things better” that have been around for a long time.

What does Lean Six Sigma do?

You can find Lean Six Sigma under many subject headings.  I was using the university library catalog the other day and found Lean Six Sigma books and articles listed under Operations Management, General Management, Business Planning, Strategic Planning, Manufacturing, Services, Product Design, Quality Control, and Self Help!  From this list, you get the idea that Lean Six Sigma has wide applications and uses, and might even be able to produce miracles–but I was unable to find any reference to it under Religion…yet!

To keep things simple, let’s remember the definition of Lean Six Sigma as a breakthrough business methodology used to drive change within an organization.  (It may go without saying, but we will say it anyway; the assumption throughout this publication is that we want to drive for POSITIVE change–i.e., improvement.)

So… to answer the question in the heading, Lean Six Sigma drives change. This change usually starts at the level of discrete improvements in how work gets done (individual projects for making things better).  It also works at the macro level when it is used for long-term change in an intentional way.  Lean Six Sigma creates change within the heart of an organization–it can change the culture of the business and how things are done, from the top down.

Is it really “breakthrough”?

The term “breakthrough” is linked to the idea of change–change in terms of singular improvements and change in terms of organizational culture or philosophy. Lean Six Sigma can be used to drive incremental change in the everyday way you do your job by focusing on specific areas that need to get better.  It can also be used to drive far-reaching fundamental change in the way an organization views its responsibilities to customers, its employees, and all stakeholders.

Driving breakthrough change is not usually an easy decision.  As you all know, it is usually easier to “stay the course.”  The need for breakthrough change (and corresponding organizational and cultural change) happens when there is a burning platform.

Motivation via a burning platform

Change is difficult to implement in any organization and most are reluctant to embrace new ideas.  You have all seen management fads come and go… mostly go.  Change is more likely to stick when everyone in the organization recognizes that they are in so much pain or are threatened with so much pain, that they must act… now!

I first heard the term “burning platform” during a presentation by a Caterpillar VP, who explained how Caterpillar had transformed itself by embracing Six Sigma (this was pre-Lean Six Sigma era) because it had “a burning platform.”  In order for the business to survive at the time, it needed to take radical, breakthrough action to change the way it did things, and to improve.  The reported result of the corporate-wide initiative was a doubling in CAT stock price over a three-year period.

The term “burning platform” supposedly came from a very unfortunate individual who was working on an oil platform, and had to make the radical decision to jump 150 feet down into the sea in order to survive a platform fire. He did survive.  Thus, people refer to the burning platform as something that will force change and drastic action, even in the face of great resistance under normal circumstances.

Is Your Platform Burning? – A Starting Point for Using Lean Six Sigma for Improving a Process

How well is your operation running?  Do your processes run smoothly with minimal error or are you just lucky that anything gets done?  Can you even define what your processes are?  Can you measure them?

In auditing, the concept of the control maturity model is often used to evaluate an organization or a department’s internal controls.  Using Lean Six Sigma, you can evaluate the internal control process and whether the system or process that we have in place is consistently producing desired outputs or results.

Note that the wordssystemandprocessare usedinterchangeably: to be more correct, a system is defined as a set of processes.  For example, you may have an accounts receivable process, a cash flow process, a general ledger process and a couple of other processes that make up your accounting system.

A process is “a series of interdependent steps through which some end is attained.”  (Definition courtesy of the on-line Random House Dictionary.)  Lean Six Sigma works by focusing on improving a process to get a better result or outcome.  That is why anyone doing work where there is a beginning (input), an activity, and a result can benefit from Lean Six Sigma.  Virtually anything can be improved.

Now let’s get back to looking at process and systems in the context of internal controls–the weaker the control (or the poorer the control process), the more the need or usefulness of Lean Six Sigma.

How Strong Are Your Controls? (Or, “How good is your process?”): An example

 

Non-existent Initial Repeatable Defined Managed Optimized
0 1 2 3 4 5
0–management processes are not applied at all
1–processes are ad hoc and disorganized
2–processes follow a regular pattern
3–processes are documented and communicated
4–processes are monitored and measured
5–good practices are followed and automatedWhen I teach a class in downtown Austin, I leave my house early to avoid the traffic and to eat breakfast downtown.  I have three choices of places to eat: Rosita’s Comida Deluxe (name changed… because I am about to talk trash about them), Taco Cabana–a Texas fast food chain, and McDonald’s.  I am going to compare these three establishments using the process maturity model above.Rosita’s is a super dive.  The only reason I even step inside is that a local magazine gave it high marks.  They were right–the refried beans are heavenly. But Rosita’s has some serious problems that will keep me from going back. The first time, they were able to pull off my order–mostly.  The eggs weren’t what I ordered, but I was in a hurry, so I let that slide.  The next time however, they took 30 minutes to get my food out. And even worse, the waiter had a huge gash on his nose and smelled like a sewer.  He said he had been in a fight the night before.  He needed stitches and it turned my stomach.  Bacon just didn’t seem as appealing afterward.

I give Rosita’s a rating of 1: processes are ad hoc and disorganized.  Lots of need for Lean Six Sigma.

My next choice is Taco Cabana.  Taco Cabana is a Texas chain of fast food Mexican restaurants, and I love their huevos rancheros.  But about every fifth visit, something stupid occurs.  Maybe they don’t have the nice warm red sauce for my huevos rancheros and instead put cold pico de gallo on my eggs.  Maybe they are out of napkins.  Yes, they have run out of napkins twice!  Or maybe someone put coffee in the tea dispenser.  It is a little risky to have breakfast at Taco Cabana… but I like the food, so I put up with it.

One thing that is great for me as a customer, but worrisome for their owners and shareholders, is that I always get something free or for a reduced price because the cashiers like me.  I NEVER get anything free at McDonald’s.  NEVER.

I give Taco Cabana a 2.5 on the scale: processes follow a regular pattern.  Taco Cabana could still use Lean Six Sigma to improve. 

Then there is McDonald’s.  If I am a little emotionally fragile on a given morning, and can’t take any surprises, I head to McDonald’s.  McDonald’s always gets it right.  They are the most controlled business I know of.  Last time I was there, I noticed a soda conveyor belt that measured out just the right amount of ice and soda for the to-go window clerk.  The only thing the clerk has to do is put on the lid. Now, that is control!  We wouldn’t want the clerk to put too much soda in there, would we?

My Egg McMuffin and sweet tea are just like the last batch I ate.  Not particularly tasty, not at all spicy, but darned consistent…and that is a key success factor to a franchise business like McDonald’s.

McDonald’s gets a scale rating of 5: good practices are followed and automated.  Less immediate need for Lean Six Sigma though they could still benefit from improvement. Every organization can…

Do You Want to Be a McDonald’s?

Achieving a maturity rating of 5 is very costly and may not be worth it for you. It isn’t worth it for my business. I am proud to consider myself a Taco Cabana type of operation.  I have my simple little systems that work for me and allow me to pull my work off about 80% of the time without a hitch.  Because I am a writer and a trainer, my clients don’t experience any severely negative effects if I forget to send in my PowerPoint slides on time.  My failures aren’t going to make anyone sick or kill anyone.  On the other hand, hospitals should be like McDonalds!  Unfortunately, we all know that they struggle, too.Understanding where you are on the maturity scale, why you are there, and knowing where you want to be, can help you determine how Lean Six Sigma might be useful to you.

Working with My Favorite Professor–Lean Six Sigma in Action

One of my favorite clients is named Harvey.  Harvey is a professor at a large state university.  Howard throws plenty of business my way and is very easy to work with.  He is so relaxed; however, that it sometimes causes trouble.Harvey asked me to write an online training program for government investment officers for him.  Students would register through the university, I would set them up with a password in the system, the university would send the student their books, and I would verify that they passed and graduate them.I wrote up a laundry list of procedures–including checks and balances–to make sure that the student was well taken care of.  Harvey said, “Hey, we have done this kind of thing before, we don’t need that.”  I created my student file checklist of key tasks and milestones anyway and did everything I could to keep things controlled on my end.

I make $100 every time a student signs up.  Not much money, but it is fine money for spending just a few minutes of time setting up a password and sending a few emails.  But–when things go wrong, I can spend hours trying to make corrections. The frustration I feel isn’t worth $1000.  If this thing doesn’t run smoothly, I really want nothing to do with it.  This is why controls are so important to me on this program.  For this program, I need a process maturity scale of 4, at least.  It needs to operate smoothly most of the time, or I don’t really make any money.

From the get go, we ran into a variety of stupid problems: students weren’t receiving the email with their password, students weren’t getting any books or the right books, the university was forgetting to bill the student… on and on and on.  Because I only controlled a portion of the program and the university controlled the rest, some of the issues were out of my hands.

After I got Harvey involved on a few mystery cases of missing books and bills, and he ended up sucking up a lot of his precious time running down a few dead- end bunny trails himself, he finally handed over the program to his wife, Marcy.  Marcy is the force that keeps Harvey running.  Marcy and I discussed what was going wrong and came up with ways to act as double checks on each other to make sure the students were taken care of.

We wrote down a list of simple procedures, roles and responsibilities, and I shared my student file checklist with her.  We named an accountable party at the university (other than Harvey and Marcy, who travel extensively) to be responsible for mailing the books and mailing the password.  She and I both keep an eye on the program now and only occasionally do we run into problems. This is another simple case of Lean Six Sigma at work: building process, making improvements, and putting controls in place–whether we call it that or just do it.  I hope this example underscores the point that Lean Six Sigma is accessible and is something you can do to make a difference in your organization.

Lean Six Sigma and Breakthrough–Some More Examples

At an industry conference in 2008 there were numerous testimonials from companies using Lean Six Sigma to make significant improvement in their organizations. Though they used Lean Six Sigma to make incremental changes initially, their programs took on greater meaning in response to a need for breakthrough.  This was the common thread.  Over a period of years, companies went, respectively, from using Lean Six Sigma tools and methods on individual projects to instituting organization-wide programs.The previous example shows how Lean Six Sigma can be used in response to a specific issue (i.e. the need for more control and standardization in a process to register students for on-line training).  The following examples portray how it can also be used to drive fundamental change in the way a government serves its citizens
The Internal Revenue Service
At the conference, Betsy Kinter from the IRS made a presentation called “Embedding Quality in the IRS.”  It was the story of how the IRS responded to a mandate by the Senate Finance Committee to modernize.  This was in 1998.  In hearings that year, various senators talked about what was wrong with the IRS and how it needed to improve service to taxpayers.  Some of the senators said some pretty negative things, including Senator Gramm who said, “I have no confidence in the IRS… Let me tell you what I think is wrong.  A good system rewards good behavior and punishes bad behavior, and yours does exactly the opposite.”  These are harsh words and definitely constitute a burning platform for change.As a result, the IRS was charged with changing from a geographically-based enforcement agency to a customer-focused service agency–big, big changes in how the Internal Revenue Service viewed itself and its operations. They created a simple mission and vision to follow.

MISSION:    Top Quality Service
VISION:      Make Taxes Easier

The improvement focus was within the Wage and Investment Group, a division with over 50,000 employees and 130 million taxpayers. Imagine how hard it would be to change an organization of that size!

Three main problems were identified as the things to focus on:

Measures of performance and output were inward facing and not customer-focused
There was a weak connection between these measures and employee and organizational performance
Improvement efforts were not strategically aligned

To solve these issues, three broad-stroke solutions were focused on:

Global common measures: this meant benchmarking with private and public entities on a function-to-function basis.  In defining measures, the IRS asked, “What is most important to the customer?” and came up with three areas of highest impact. These were timeliness, accuracy, and professionalism.  This is what they would measure.

100% line of sight accountability: this meant developing measures that were tied to performance and motivated people to do things the right way–for the customer.  Reporting was created that would flow up, from the employee to operations to the overall organization.  This reporting would allow for communication of critical business information at all levels of the organization.  Everyone could see how his or her efforts contributed to the success of the organization.

Strategic planning and improvement: this meant linking actions to long-term objectives, mission, and vision.  Though the IRS started improvement efforts with individual project-level focus, the long-term success was based on implementation of a full Lean Six Sigma infrastructure and program integrated with strategic planning.

This sounds like a lot and it is… improvements took place over an eight-year period.

The speaker emphasized that success in the overall initiative was based on early wins that she referred to as being in “stealth mode.”  This meant “just doing” some of the Lean Six Sigma projects without scaring people away with the prospect of a massive new program for change (Lean Six Sigma).  Early success generated early adopters, upon which further success could be built. Within your organization, an early adopter could be you!

Some examples of specific projects to make discrete improvements included:

To Improve Taxpayer Service…

Streamline the returns processing at Submission Processing Centers
Reduce waste in walk-in center processes
Improve telephone response quality
Reduce defects in publications and forms

To Enhance Enforcement of Tax Law…

Reduce lag time before detecting fraud
Improve cycle time for the release of liens
Reduce erroneous tax assessments
Improve the selection process for exam case audits

Bigger initiatives focused on modernizing the IRS through people, processes, and technology improvements:

Automating non customer-focused activities to improve response time
Streamlining the amended return process
Eliminating barriers that impede employment opportunities for employees and applicants

You will see that all these project areas focus on cycle time and quality for full Lean Six Sigma impact.

The IRS began by focusing on the “what”–individual improvement projects–and then gradually developed their approach into the “how” by embedding Lean Six Sigma in every step of the organization.  Remember, it took eight years of gradual and regular progress.

Bank One

Another good example comes from Michael L. George’s bookLean Six Sigma for Services. In this publication, George provides a case study of Bank One and how it used Lean Six Sigma to drive major changes within its National Enterprise Operations division in response to major growth the bank experienced in the late 1990’s.George cites a Bank One senior VP as explaining the initial driving force for improvement as “basic survival” and the need to get control over operations. The banking industry was consolidating and Bank One was getting bigger, fast.  In terms of our process maturity scale, we might infer that Bank One saw the need to move to a higher maturity level to grow effectively.  The text implies that this growth was their burning platform.The early improvement efforts were focused on “measuring performance and identifying opportunities.”  This meant using Lean Six Sigma as a common methodology and language for the division to address specific problems.  In your world, this may be as simple as identifying roles, responsibilities, and expectations for certain results (especially important in a growing organization–where people are coming in from different jobs or even different companies and are an integral part of making certain things happen). This is similar to the example of the Texas university consolidation and the flow-charting exercise.

Back at Bank One… later implementation of Lean Six Sigma focused more on what we might think of as “proactive improvement.”  Instead of just responding to operational problems (which is always important), the next stage was about making sure operational processes were aligned with strategic goals and that they produced intended results.  Look at this as moving from focusing on “what” to focusing on “how.”

Another way to frame this difference is to look at the contrast between using Lean Six Sigma to solve a problem that we know quite a bit about, but lack the internal coordination or visibility to solve it versus having a goal like “increase customer satisfaction by 10%.”  In the latter case, we don’t know much about the issue or HOW to solve it.  It’s not just a coordination or visibility matter.  Instead of using Lean Six Sigma to show WHAT we need to do, we let the methodology guide us in action.

In any case, through long-term and widespread deployment of Lean Six Sigma within the National Enterprise Operations, Bank One recognized specific operational results as well as a new way of doing things. Net results came through conducting projects to reduce cycle time (one administrative process was reduced from 20 minutes to 12 minutes) and brought associated cost reductions.  This is a “what.”  Bank One also shared an example of how they used a Kaizen project to figure out how to cut down on the amount of “exceptions processing” in their overnight corporate-to-corporate payments system, thereby reducing cost and increasing customer satisfaction and revenue.  This is a “how.”

Lean Six Sigma and You

The path to improvement begins with small steps, and this training focuses on what you can do as an individual.  It’s great to make sweeping proclamations with the best of intentions, like “I am going to start a regular exercise program.”  “Doing Lean Six Sigma” can be similar.  We have found, however, that it is much easier to start with small steps, like doing 10 minutes of exercise today and not stressing about how to fit a new program into your routine.  It’s the same with Lean Six Sigma.  We hope that you learn from this training some things that you can do today instead of waiting for the Lean Six Sigma department to be set up and give you guidance.  It usually doesn’t happen that way!  Take baby steps!As we saw in the last two examples, more robust use of Lean Six Sigma may come with time.  It involves early “proving out” of the concept–showing that Lean Six Sigma works on problems you are facing now.You can start by asking, “What is my burning platform?”  What is caving in under my feet?  Ever since Enron, many of the standards-setting bodies have been very busy enhancing regulations and standards in an effort to make accounting and auditing information more useful and transparent.  New technology has increased citizens’ expectations regarding the services government provides.  For instance, most permits and forms for state and local governments can now be filled out and submitted online.

No matter the circumstance, it always feels better to be driving change instead of having change drive you.  Lean Six Sigma can give you the tools you need to tackle some of the challenges on the horizon before they overtake you and your group.  At a later stage, Lean Six Sigma may become your regular “modus operandi.”

What’s in the Rest of This Book?

The text is organized to flow from general definitions and concepts to specific tools and methods and to end with three chapters on using Lean Six Sigma. An afterward section is meant to get you motivated and on your way!  Finally, there is a reference and suggested reading section at the end.The chapters are organized like this:•  Chapter 2: Defining Lean Six Sigma
•  Chapter 3: Basic Lean Concepts
•  Chapter 4: Basic Six Sigma Concepts
•  Chapter 5: The Top Thirteen Lean Six Sigma Tools
•  Chapter 6: The DMAIC Process
•  Chapter 7: Understanding Kaizen
•  Chapter 8: Making Lean Six Sigma Work
•  Afterward
•  References and Recommended Reading
•  Glossary
•  About the Authors

The Struggle is Real

If you work for an audit shop with more than three professionals, you likely struggle with getting your audit report out the door.

First of all, let me reassure you that you are perfectly normal.  Nothing wicked or dastardly is afoot.  Every audit team I have ever worked with wishes they could finish quicker.

We are not the only profession who struggles to finish projects.  I have been listening to a pod cast series by Seth Godin – who is a guru of sorts for start-up companies.  One particular pod-cast is full of wisdom about finishing a project, and this wisdom can and should be applied to audit reporting.  A link to Seth’s workbook and to the podcast appears below.   I recommend you have the workbook open as you listen to the podcast.

Godin doesn’t talk about audit reports specifically, but I trust that you can mentally replace his example of launching a computer software with your own experiences publishing an audit report.  I think you will find it worth the effort to analogize.

As you are listening, note how he recommends that you force executives into the process early and remove them at the end.  Note how he decries changes once the objectives have been set and argues for ‘good enough’ over perfection.  Note how he focuses on the customer and encourages us to tell the truth plainly without padding it with extra words.

Here is a link to the podcast:  https://itunes.apple.com/us/podcast/seth-godins-startup-school/id566985370?mt=2&i=1000136135406

Here is a link to the workbook he refers to in the podcast:  https://sethgodin.typepad.com/files/theshipitjournal.pdf

I hope to be leading a city auditor through this workbook in an upcoming seminar, and I’ll let you know, via LinkedIn, how it goes.  If you apply this tool to your next project, please share your results with me.  To follow me on LinkedIn, find my profile under Leita Hart Fanta.

I hope the “Spring Forward” this weekend is easy on your mind and body.

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